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B. Types of Specific Learning Disabilities

Specific Learning Disabilities is an umbrella term used to define several types of Learning disabilities like:

1. Dyslexia (Difficulty with reading): Children with dyslexia have trouble with reading. They have difficulty joining letters and reading them. They often avoid activities that involve reading. They may have language learning difficulties.

Subtypes of dyslexia are:
- Phonological dyslexia: Difficulty with phonological awareness skills, like rhyming, being able to break a word into smaller units, ability to join letters and read a word, etc
- Surface dyslexia: It is also known as Visual dyslexia and is marked by difficulty remembering whole words on seeing them. We have learned to read some words by sight when the words are spelled differently against the rules of normal pronunciation. Children with surface dyslexia fail to remember such sight words.
- Rapid naming dyslexia: Difficulty naming numbers and letters quickly when they are shown.
- Double deficit dyslexia: Combination of difficulties with phonemic awareness and naming speed.
- Directional dyslexia: Difficulty with the sense of direction (left bright)

2. Dysgraphia (Difficulty with writing): Children with dysgraphia are often unable to pen down their thoughts. They have difficulty with grammar, spelling, punctuation, and often have poor handwriting.

Subtypes of dysgraphia are:
- Dyslexia-Dysgraphia: Spontaneous writing is often illegible whereas if the child copies from the board/ book it is legible.
- Motor dysgraphia: Difficulty with fine motor activities, often clumsy. Illegible writing (even copied work is illegible), poor pencil grip, slanting while writing is noticed.
- Spatial dysgraphia: Poor handwriting due to difficulty understanding space.
- Phonological dysgraphia: Difficulty writing unfamiliar words and made-up words.
- Lexical dysgraphia: Difficulty spelling irregular words (words that don't follow sound-to-letter rules)

3. Dyscalculia (Difficulty with numbers and calculations): Children with dyscalculia face difficulty with number concepts. Difficulties with math problems, mathematical reasoning, calculations, etc.

Subtypes of dyscalculia are:
- Verbal dyscalculia: Difficulty naming and understanding mathematical concepts that are verbally said. They may be able to read and understand but not listen and understand.
- Practognostic dyscalculia: Difficulty in understanding values and quantity of items and objects, difficulty to transfer mathematical concepts into daily life.
- Lexical dyscalculia: Difficulty reading numbers, mathematical equations, and symbols.
- Graphical dyscalculia: Difficulty writing mathematical symbols.
- Ideognostical dyscalculia: Difficulty calculating mentally in the absence of visual numbers and figures.
- Operational dyscalculia: Difficulty to complete mathematical calculations or operations, in both written form and verbal form.

4. Dyspraxia (Difficulty in motor activities): Children with dyspraxia have difficulty learning motor movements like clapping, brushing teeth/ hair, waving bye, etc. They have difficulty with the pronunciation of words and clarity of speech, slow handwriting, poor pencil grip, etc.

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