Intellectual Disability can be caused due to multiple factors:
- Environmental factors: Alcohol consumptions by the mother during pregnancy, exposure to toxins
- Genetic causes: Syndromes like Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, Klinefelter syndrome, Genetic ciliopathy, X-linked intellectual disability.
- Complications during pregnancy: Infections, malformation of the brain, intoxication.
- Complications at birth: Delayed birth cry, anoxia, trauma during delivery.
- Congenital conditions like hypothyroidism, Phenylketonuria, Cerebral palsy, Global developmental delay, Seizure disorder, etc can cause ID.