C. Signs and symptoms of Down Syndrome

    Down syndrome can be diagnosed almost as soon as a baby is born, based on distinctive physical features, like:

    - Flat nose
    - small ears
    - wide set eyes
    - short stature
    - short neck
    - protruding tongue
    - small hands and feet
    - weak muscle tone, etc.

    After birth, it is confirmed by a blood test called a karyotype test that lines up the chromosomes and will show if there’s an extra chromosome 21.

    The severity of symptoms of Down syndrome varies among individuals. Some do not have any associated conditions, whereas some children may have:
    - heart problems
    - gastrointestinal problems
    - hearing impairment
    - vision impairment
    - breathing issues like sleep apnea
    - underactive thyroid
    - obesity
    - dementia.

    Other associated conditions include intellectual disability, developmental delay, autism, learning disability, behavioral difficulties, etc.