C. Types and Causes of Autism

Types of Autism

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, published in 2013) includes conditions mentioned below as part of the Autism Spectrum Disorder:

- Autistic Disorder (Classical Autism)
- Asperger's syndrome
- Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
- Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
- Rett’s syndrome ( a common type of autism in girls)

Causes of Autism-

There is no single cause for autism. It is related to the difference in the wiring of the brain structures and their functions. However, the possible causes could be due to:

- genetic conditions like Fragile X syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis
- complications during pregnancy and birth
- environmental factors
- neurobiological factors.